i need to get something off my chest
*takes off my nipple*
Elementary school textbook:
- Antek has valuable coins.
- Anka has gorgeous baloons*.
*baloons = balony = slang for boobs
July 1, 1569: Union of Lublin
The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania confirm a real union after being joined in a personal union that began in 1386, joining the 2 nations into one entity, ruled by one monarch, called the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth was, in the 16th and 17th centuries, one of the largest and most populous European countries. The 2 parts were nominally equal, but Poland was clearly the dominant partner.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was very unique in its time and actually a precursor to many qualities we have found admirable or desirable in a nation over the last couple of centuries. For instance, it was ethnically and religiously diverse. Not only was it diverse, though, but also highly tolerant for the times. Its form of government was also something highly modern for the 16th and 17th centuries. It was essentially a constitutional monarchy. Unlike something like today’s UK, the monarch did hold actual power. However, the monarch was nowhere near an absolutist like nearby Russia. Instead, the monarch’s power was strictly monitored and checked by a legislative body, controlled by the sizeable nobility, called the Sejm. The king was ELECTED and the Sejm could veto anything the king wanted to do. Also, the three regions of the commonwealth enjoyed high levels of regional autonomy. This system was a precursor to modern-day democracy, federation, and constitutional monarchy.
Oh, it was also awesome and badass. People tend to think of Poland as probably the most tragic European country, which has basically been true for a little over 200 years now. However, people who think of Poland as the most tragic European country ever only think about those 200 years and have no idea that the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was ever a thing and no idea that Poland used to actually be pretty powerful and pretty fucking rad.
The governmental system was hella ahead of its times (almost no similar entities existed at the time in Europe, save for the Republic of Venice…); it was an important political, social, and cultural centre of Europe; it was powerful yet chose to be peaceful; and it granted not only religious and ethnic rights but also bourgeois and peasant rights.
Unfortunately, after a period of great prosperity and badassery, the Commonwealth began to decline quickly and eventually became so weak that the 3 major powers surrounding it — Prussia, Austria, and Russia — partitioned it out of existence at the end of the 18th century. The partitions marked the beginning of the last 200 years of tragedy.
Portrait of the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania August II the Strong (1670-1733), Henryk Rodakowski (1823–1894) after Louis de Silvestre (1675-1760), 19th c. Lviv History Museum.
[Alright, that was expected to happen in this situation, but Alexandru did not expect it since he was too focused on the fact he’s basically feeding Feliks beer like he’s a toddler, which results into him laughing even harder, he’s fucking roaring, and the bottle slipping out of his hand and poor Feliks almost dying. Incredible.]
“Feliks— Holy shit, are you alright—”
/When the bottle slips, it is unfortunately bound to break upon hitting against the ground. The loud sound makes Feliks cringe for a second, then again Alexandru is still wheezing, in a manner so ridiculous that an intoxicated person can’t handle. There he is, giving in again and despite burning sensation in his nose, he proceeds to howl, there is nothing amusing happening, he doesn’t know why they’re laughing. But he’s having fun. Bless this wonderfully empty head after consuming alcohol./
“Iunno, man, iunno— am I?”